Thursday, 26 March 2015

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Village life in India - Essay for all students

Indian is an agriculture country and most of its people live in villages. A village is a collection of small huts in the midst of fields on which the village farmers work. Some villages are big while others are comparatively smaller. They are generally cut off from the cities and have a different kind of life.
The villagers live in the midst of natural surroundings. The charm of nature justify the remark of the famous poet Cowper, "God made the country and man made the town", As we rise early in the morning, we can listen to the sweet songs of birds. We can enjoy the beauty of the rising sun and the sweet breeze of the greenery of fields around, are the various pleasures that abound in the countryside.
The villagers pass a healthy, peaceful life. There is no smoke and noise of the city factories. They breathe fresh air which promotes their health. They also get pure ghee and milk. There is no hustle and bustle and no worry as in the modern life. The villagers, therefore, are happy and healthy. They lead a simple life and their desires are few. They are satisfied with what they have and never dream of those luxuries and comforts that modern science has provided us with in such ample measure.
Most of the people who live in villages are farmers. They cultivate their farms situated in the neighbored of the villages. They go to their fields early in the morning where they work till evening, ploughing, sowing or reaping, according to seasons. Spinning and weaving is one of the most important cottage industries of a village. It helps to increase their meager income. Beside this, some people keep shops and provided the necessities of life of the villagers. Other works as potters, carpenters, blacksmith, etc, to fulfill their needs.
The villagers are deeply religious. They worship a number of gods and goddesses. They devote regular time to player and worship. The village priest enjoys great respect. But they are highly orthodox and any change is dislike and opposed. Many kinds of superstitions flourish among them. They live in constant fear of ghost. They believe in a number of omens.
The villagers are socially knit together. Their life is co-operate and interdependent. They depend on each other for the supply of their daily wants. They share in the joys and sorrow of each other. They help each other in time of need. Their social sense is so strong that the guest of one is considered as the guest of all. In a town or city, one does not care to know even one's neighbour. But each villages is familiar with the family history of other villagers. In the evening they assemble in the village "Chopal" with there 'hukkas' and chatting and talking goes on till late the night. This is their simple recreation.
But the village life has also some serious drawbacks. The villagers are extremely poor. They live in one roomed "kachcha" mud houses, which often fall to the ground in the rains. In this way, they are put to great hardship. Suitable houses must be constructed for them. At present there are only a few Pucca houses in villages. In spite of their hard work, they are not able to earn enough to provide themselves with even two square meals a day. They are ill-clad and ill-fed. As they are not able to save anything, in a need they have to borrow from the village money lender. They are frequently in debt which they are often never able return. Scientific methods of agriculture must be used, and government should provide facilities of this purpose. There is no doubt that much improvement has been made in this respect in recent times but it is not enough.
The villages are illiterate. Most of them do not even know how to write their names. There are no suitable arrangements for their education or for the education of their children. Even when there is a school, it is highly unsatisfactory. The teachers is ill-paid and takes no interest in his work. Their ignorance makes them superstitious and conservative. They are content with their old methods of cultivation and do not like scientific methods.
In villages, there are no suitable arrangement for treatment of the sick. Often there is no qualified doctor. The village Vaids and Hakims are mere quacks who kill more patients than they cure. The villages are highly in sanitary and many infectious disease breakout from time to time. Thousands of people die every year, uncared for an without any medical aid. However, now things are fast changing. Good hospitals have been constructed near each village. Good, qualified doctors are now there in most villages.
Such is the life in an Indian village. In spite of its various drawbacks, it is a better life than that of the city. If I were given the choice, I would prefer to live in the village. The Government has already taken in hand various measures to improve the conditions of th villages. "Jawahar Rozgar Yojana" and "Panchayati Raj" are two of the important steps taken in this direction. Let us hope, in the near feature, their poverty and illiteracy shall be eradicated. A village will then really by a paradise on earth, as God intended it to be.

Tuesday, 10 March 2015

Amichand Rajbansi Life

Amichand Rajbansi (14 January 1942 – 29 December 2011) was a South African politician. He was a former Chief Minister of the House of Delegates Tricameral parliamentary chamber for Indian people, and leader of the Minority Front.

Amichand Rajbansi, nicknamed the Bengal Tiger, was born in Clairwood, Durban on 14 January 1942. He attended Clairwood Secondary School and the Indian University College to study History and Psychology as major subjects.

After a long service as a sports administrator, professional soccer referee, civic leader, and serving in local government structures dealing with local affairs, Rajbansi was elected to the South African Indian Council in 1974. This council was rejected by most Indians.[1] In 1976 Rajbansi resigned from the Indian Council protesting the inter Cabinet council[clarification needed] between the Indian Council and government cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster.[citation needed] In 1981 he formed the National People's Party (NPP) and was elected leader of this new party. The NPP successfully competed for the election to the South African Indian Council and took control of SAIC, although only 6% of the Indian electorate participated in the 1981 elections for the Council.[1]

In 1984, following Prime Minister PW Botha's constitutional reforms, the NPP stood for the newly constituted House of Delegates, the Indian only parliamentary chamber, and won the majority of seats in the House. As a result, Rajbansi became a member of the South African Cabinet and chairman for the Ministers' Council for Indian Affairs.

Rajbansi's leadership of the House of Delegates was often controversial, and in May 1987, his NPP lost its majority [clarification needed] to an opposition coalition. However, Rajbansi did not resign his chairmanship,[clarification needed] and he survived the leadership challenge with the help of P.W. Botha. A Parliamentary select committee later in 1987 found that Rajbansi accepted R10 000 for his party in order to "facilitate the obtaining of land and contracts", and he was suspended from the House of Delegates. He was suspended from P.W. Botha's cabinet, and Botha appointed a commission of enquiry under Justice Neville James to investigate allegations of corruption in the House of Delegates Administration. He was later found guily by another parliamentary committee of "glaring" maladministration in forcing the purchase of a cultural centre for an inflated price. Botha fired Rajbansi from his cabinet and his Minister's Council in December 1988, following the preliminary report from the James Commission. The final report of the commission described Rajbansi as "arrogant", "unscrupulous", "ruthless" and a "mean-minded bully". The commission found that Rajbansi had lied to Parliament, committed statutory perjury, had given false evidence to the Commission, and misused his position. It also recommended that he never again be employed as a minister in the House of Delegates or in any official or semi-official post which called for integrity. He later resigned as leader of the NPP, and was suspended from the House of Delegates, only to be reinstated a few months later. In June 1990, he was convicted on 2 counts of fraud, and was fined R10 000 for using "fronts" [clarification needed] to obtain premises for his businesses when he was a member of the SA Indian Council.[2]

After South Africa's transition to multi-racial democracy in 1994, the NPP became the Minority Front and continued to draw support from parts of the Indian community.

After the 2004 elections, Rajbansi made an alliance with the African National Congress and he became MEC for Sports and Recreation for KwaZulu-Natal Province. In January 2009, Mr Rajbansi received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the India International Friendship Society in New Delhi, in recognition of his selfless service to humanity. He was the only African to receive this award.

On 29 December 2011, Rajbansi died from natural causes.[3]

Personal life

Rajbansi was formerly married to Asha Devi, a journalist and popular figure in local government. Devi spoke to Jani Allan in an interview published by the Sunday Times in the 1980s about her affection for her husband. She referred to her husband as "her hero". "Even if it means sleeping on a bed of nails or walking on coals for him, I will do it ... I will always stand by him."[4] They also had four daughters and a son together.[5] Their relationship soured when Devi joined the IFP. The couple separated in 1998, with political and alleged paranoramal activity in their marital home being cited as reasons attributed to their separation.[6] The couple divorced in 2000.[7] A year later Rajbansi married Shameen Thakur.[8]
In 2003 Rajbansi's ex-daughter-in-law, Karnagie Tandree was strangled to death[9] Police have deliberated over both murder and suicide as a cause of the death.[10]

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Santhal people Life

The Santhal (also spelled as Santal, and formerly also spelt as Sontal or Sonthal) are one of the Tribal peoples who live mainly in the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, and Assam. There is also a significant Santhal minority in neighboring Bangladesh, and a small population in Nepal (known as Satar in Nepal). The Santhals speak the Santali language, one of the Tribal languages. They are one of the largest tribal community in India

Santali Language

The Santhals have been more tenacious of their language than many of the other people to whom they are racially allied. They are the largest tribe in India to retain a good language to the present day. The Santali Language is part of the Austroasiatic family, distantly related to Vietnamese and Khmer. It is closely related to Mundri as well as to Ho, Korku, Savara and Gadaba, languages spoken by smaller tribes. The relationship of the Santhals with these tribes is racial and cultural as well as linguistic, and as they live in neighboring territories it is very likely that they have a common origin. They have nevertheless been separate long enough to develop their individual languages and to possess distinct though allied cultures.

The Santali script is a relatively recent innovation. Santali did not have a written language until the twentieth century and used Latin/Roman, Devnagri, Oriya and Bangla writing systems.

The Reverend J. Phillips published 'An Introduction to the Santal Language' in 1852, printed at the Calcutta School - Book Society's Press.

Lars Olsen Skrefsrud, a Norwegian missionary and a language researcher, published 'A Grammar of Santali Language' in 1873.

Paul Olaf Bodding (born Gjøvik, Norway on 2 November 1865, died Odense, Denmark on 25 September 1938) was a Norwegian missionary, linguist and folklorist. He served in India for 44 years (1889–1933), and operated mainly from the town Dumka in the Santal Parganas-district. Bodding created the first alphabet and wrote the first grammar for the Santali-speaking native people in eastern India. In 1914 he also completed the translation of the Bible into the Santali Language.

In 1925 akilman Raghunath Murmu created Ol Chiki script for the Santali Language.
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Monday, 2 March 2015

Holi Festival

Holi is one of the major festivals of Hindus. It is celebrated in many parts of India, but especially in the north of India. The festival is celebrated for two to three days. People pour colored water on each other and cook many types of sweets and other food. Holi is celebrated in spring because it is welcoming spring. They believe spring is full of colours so they throw coloured water on each other.

Hiranyakashyap (the king of demons) had son, Prahlad. Prahlad was the greatest devotee of Lord Vishnu. Hiranyakashyap wanted to kill his son. So he called his sister,Holika. She had a magic robe. This robe had the power to save the wearer from burning in fire. Hiranyakashyap ordered his sister to sit on burning fire along with Prahlad. He thought that her sister would not be harmed by fire because of the magic robe and Prahlad would be burnt to death. But the result was the opposite to what the evil demon king planned.

As is believed, no one can harm the person who has God as his saviour. Thus Prahlad came out of the burning fire safely and Holika was burnt to death.The other day is celebrated with joyful colours to mark the victory of virtue And goodness over evil.
The festival is celebrated for five days. The 5th day Rang Panchmi marks the closing day of Holi festival
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